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Cinco de Mayo-Underwater!

*Ah, Cinco de Mayo.

Commemorating the Mexican army’s 1862 victory over France at the Battle of Puebla during the Franco-Mexican War. It's a time... ... more >



Why Does Pollution Really Happen?

Read on the web
Over the last couple of weeks I have been educating myself on Plastic Pollution, Ocean Pollution and even pollution just in general as a social phenomen.I think its important to understand not only 'what is' happening, but also analyze why this happeneing.Pollution is a collective, systemic & universal act conducted by our collective global 'human' race.Frankly, I'm a realist, and I honestly don't believe in the likelihood of a planet wide more awakening based on some unfathomable high morals, atleast in the near future and would like to take a little more pragmatic view on this 'social phenomenom'.My goal is to try and share some of my thoughts on the axiomatic core of why pollution occurs generally.I'm not naive to assume that people are inherently evil and intend to do damage intentionally, rather on a systemic level our society has evolved and become very complexly structure.

"Externalities"Most of the world around us, and even the sustainability of our oceans can be explained by economics if looked at it properly.Economics has a very pivotal understanding known as an 'externality';

In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.[1]Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that "internalize" an externality, so that costs and benefits will affect mainly parties who choose to incur them.[2]Infact, pollution is the most commonly used examples of a 'negative externality'.Very simply - it is a cost or benefit that is not part of the equation, and the only way to account for it is to bring it into the equation or 'internalize the externality'.

Case Study: Mr. WangFor example, lets say you have a toy producing factory in China, its total annual fixed (overhead) costs are $5000, variable cost of 5/toy and it's revenue are 1000 toys per year x $20/piece = $20,000At those numbers Mr. Wang makes $10,000 profit per yearHere is the issue, at the moment the factory is gushing out strong industrial pollutants into the air and into the sewage. Hypothetically there is a 'cost' imposed on nature because in theory this damage should be cleaned up - this is a 'negative externality'.Alternatively, the factory would need to set up a filtration system that would cost another $5/toy to mitigate 95% of the damage done and thus adress the cost and thus 'internalize the negative externality'.Now, even if the owner of the factory recognizes that he is simply growing an unclaimable debt with nature and wants to live more sustainably, he will have problems.Lets say he decides to implement the filtration system, lets see how this affects his numbers.

#Scenario 1: He Adds The Cost to the ProductLets say he shifts the cost of the filter down the line and now sells his toys for $25/toy.At that price point, the market is only willing to buy 700 toys from him bringing him a revenue of $17,500.His costs are still $5,000, and now his cost per toy is $10 x 700 toys = $7000, total $12,000Mr. Wang now makes only $5,500 versus the $10,000 he was making before.The harsh reality is worse however.Beijings Toy Manufacturing Marke ... more >


NYUPS May Meeting: Diving the Spice Islands

Upcoming meeting of NYC-based group features images from Maluku Islands ... more >


Diver Jailed for Plundering Historical Shipwreck Cannons

Claims the cannons were found in “international waters” ... more >


Lab Accident Leads to Battery that Never Fades

Nanowire could extend life of your camera battery infinitely ... more >


Nauticam Announces Housing for Canon EOS-1D X Mark II

Nauticam unveils NA-1DX MKII housing for Canon’s new flagship DSLR, the EOS-1D X Mark II ... more >


Neal Watson’s Bimini Scuba Center Moving To Bimini Big Game Club Resort & Marina

Neal Watson’s Bimini Scuba Center recently announced plans to move its scuba diving operation from South Bimini to Bimini Big Game Club Resort & Marina on North Bimini. Both companies expect this partnership to improve the guest experience and widen their customer base. Best known for its “Great Hammerhead Shark Safaris” and scuba diving packages, ... more >


Galápagos Islands adds Protection for Marine Sanctuary.

Galápagos Islands adds Protection for Marine Sanctuary. The Galápagos Islands has long been a favorite destination for scuba divers. The liveaboard trip to the far north of the island chain to the remote islands of Darwin and Wolf is the trip for shark lovers. These islands have the highest biomass of sharks in the world. However, while high recent studies have shown that the number is getting smaller. A major contribution to that is illegal fishing. This recent study reinforced an plan already under consideration, Expanding the protection for the marine areas. On March 21st ,Ecuador’s president, Rafael Correa, announced the creation of the Galápagos Islands Marine Sanctuary. Much of the area around the Galapagos islands has been protected such as Galápagos Marine Reserve around the northern Galápagos islands of Darwin and Wolf. This new sanctuary improves the protection. Joining the Galápagos Marine Reserve are Twenty-one smaller areas make up the rest of the 18,000 square miles (47,000 square kilometers) Marine Sanctuary. By Barry Peters - Flickr, CC BY 2.0, The Galápagos Marine Reserve is very remote and at the far north of the archipelago over 300 kilometers from the central islands. The new status brings forth additional resources to protect the area and increased penalties for violations. The Charles Darwin Research Station was the one responsible for the latest research project that was focused around Wolf and Darwin islands. They found that the area had a fish biomass averaging 17.5 tons per hectare. About 75% of the biomass was of shark and ray species. The is clear proof that more sharks are found here then anywhere else. The next highest biomass in the world according to current surveys is the Coco Island National Park of Costa Rica some 450 kilometers to the north. Coco Islands also noted for it massive shark population has a biomass statistic of 9 tons per hectare, which is nearly equally divided between sharks/ray and other marine life. As great as the 17.5 tons figure is, it is still a decline in shark populations. These new initiatives are designed to protect the marine life and help bring the levels back up. The only way to dive the Wolf and Darwin islands is by liveaboard dive boats. Divers will fly into the Galápagos islands from mainland ,Ecuador into one of the two airports in the central island area. From their they will join their liveaboard dive boats for a trip headed north. Along the way they will stop for dives daily. Galápagos islands has four major ocean currents that converge on them. Each brings waters with different climate conditions and the marine life that goes with it. Divers will encounter both tropical marine life and temperate marine life, often on the same dive. Dive boats generally stay two days at the remote island before heading back, most of the trips are 10 day trips, however 7 and 12 day trips are also common. You can find more information on liveaboard diving the Galápagos islands on the dive zone website. ... more >


SCUBA News 191 now Up

Latest issue of SCUBA News (ISSN 1476-8011) now up at ... more >